Chapter 53-History of Baseball & Softball-棒球和垒球的历史
Baseball, 棒球运动的历史悠久，在人类文明的早期，就有以棒击球的游戏。现代棒球运动起源于美国，世界上第一次棒球比赛是1839年在美国纽约州举行的，1845Softball, 垒球运动是由棒球运动演变而来，其比赛方法、运动员职责等与棒球基本相同，只是球场、球、棒和投手投球技术等方面略有不同。
Baseball is a game played with a hard ball and a bat between two teams of nine players each. Baseball has become the national pastime of the United States, vying in popularity with basketball and American football. It is played throughout the world by people of all ages. Baseball is one of the oldest and most popular spectator sports. The game as it is known today developed during the early 1800s among children and amateur players. Today, professional baseball attracts millions of spectators to ballparks each year and entertains millions more through radio and television broadcasts. Although it is clear that modern baseball developed in North America, the exact origin of the game is difficult to determine. Most scholars believe that baseball evolved from a variety of similar games that have been played for centuries. A popular legend claims that Abner Doubleday, a Union officer during the American Civil War, invented baseball in Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. But there is little support for this story. There is evidence that people played games involving a stick and a ball from the early days of civilization. Ancient cultures in Persia, Egypt, and Greece played stick-and-ball games for recreation and as part of certain ceremonies. Games of this type had spread throughout Europe by the Middle Ages (5th century to 15th century) and became popular in a variety of forms. Europeans brought stick-and-ball games to the American colonies as early as the 1600s. Until the late 1700s, however, they were widely considered to be children's games. By the early 1800s, a variety of stick-and-ball games had become popular in North America. Most of these games originated in England. Many people in northeastern cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia played cricket, a traditional game of English aristocrats. But an English game called Rounders, which was eventually played in rural and urban communities throughout North America, most closely resembled modern baseball.
By the 1820s and 1830s baseball had become a common form of recreation, played according to local customs throughout Northeastern America. Early forms of baseball were played in cities such as New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Rochester as well as in many rural towns and villages. People in some communities formed clubs especially to play the game. But elements of Rounders, such as plugging the runner, remained common, and baseball lacked official rules or formal organization. The most important early organized baseball club was formed in 1845 by a group of young men in New York City. This group, led by Alexander Cartwright and later by Dr. Daniel L. Adams, called their club the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club. The Knickerbockers developed a set of 20 rules—14 governing play and 6 relating to administration—that became the foundation of modern baseball. These rules, first published in 1845, defined the playing field with a home plate and three additional bases set apart at specific distances. They also abolished plugging and replaced it with the practice of tagging runners or forcing them out at a base. On June 19, 1846, the Knickerbockers played in what is widely considered the first modern baseball game. They met another organized baseball team called the New York Club in what is now Hoboken, in New Jersey, and played a complete game according to the Knickerbocker rules. The Knickerbockers lost, 23-1. The Knickerbocker’s style of play spread rapidly during the 1850s, when baseball clubs formed throughout New York City and adopted the new rules. By the late 1850s the game's popularity had spread beyond the city, and it became known as the New York Game. By the mid-1850s crowds of several thousand were not uncommon at baseball games in the New York City area. The New York Game spread more rapidly during the Civil War as Union soldiers introduced the game in places where they traveled. By the end of the war in 1865, the game had become the most popular variety of baseball throughout the country. Soon after, the name New York Game disappeared—it became simply Baseball.
More about Baseball
The International Baseball Federation (IBAF)国际棒球联合会：
Founded in 1938, the IBAF is the International BAseball Federation recognized by the International Olympic Committee. Established in Lausanne, the Olympic Capital, since 1994 and counting 112 National Federation members, the IBAF organizes the Baseball World Cup, World Championships in their different categories, the Intercontinental Cup and the Baseball Olympic Tournament, securing the development and expansion of this sport all over the world.
Olympic History of Baseball棒球在奥运会上的历史：
American baseball was contested in the Olympics as a demonstration sport in 1912, 1936, 1956, 1964, 1984 and 1988. Finnish baseball (pesäpallo) was a demonstration sport during the 1952 Helsinki Games. American baseball became a full medal sport in Barcelona in 1992, while the similar sport of softball was added to the Olympic programme in 1996. The United States no longer dominates this sport in international play, as the Cubans and several Central American countries produce excellent teams.
Baseball’s Competition in the Olympic Games奥运会上棒球的赛制：
Teams qualify through regional series that produce two teams each from the Americas, Europe and Asia and another from a playoff between the top teams from Oceania and Africa.
At the Games, each team plays the other seven once, and the top four teams advance to the semi-finals. The first-placed team then plays the fourth-placed team, and the second plays the third. The winners of those semi-finals meet to decide the gold and silver medals, with the two losing teams playing for the bronze.
Equipment of baseball and softball棒球和垒球的装备：
The ball is formed by a core of cork, two covers of rubber, three covers of woolen and cotton yarns and all of it covered with two stripes of white horsehide stitched together with a red yarn.
The baseball is between 22.9cm and 23.5cm in circumference, and weigh between 141.7g and 148.8g.
The softball is between 30.2cm and 30.8cm in circumference, and weigh between 178.0g and 198.4g.
In order to catch the ball easily, the defensive players use different kinds of gloves according to their positions:
First baseman's glove
Catcher's mitt (more padded to soften the pitcher's pitches, a diameter of max. 87 cm). Used by the catcher only.
First baseman glove: longer, to catch his defensive teammates' balls (a maximum length of 30 cm). Used by the first baseman only.
Infielder's: smaller and more manageable. Used by the second baseman, third baseman and shortstop. The Pitcher's glove is usually mid to large sized to hide the pitch from the batter and to protect themselves from line drives.
Outfielder's: bigger to facilitate catching balls in flight. Used by the left fielder, center fielder and right fielder.
The bat is used during the offensive phase to hit the ball delivered by the opposing pitcher as far away as possible, or to place it in the areas less protected by the defense. It can be made of metal (usually aluminum) or also of wood (ash).
The bat's maximum diameter, in its biggest part, is 7 cm. The bat's maximum length is 106 cm. The bat's maximum weight is non-limited.
The bat's maximum diameter, in its biggest part, is 5.7 cm. The bat's maximum length is 86.4 cm. The bat's maximum weight is 1077.0g.
The players at bat use a helmet to protect themselves from unexpected and uncontrolled pitches from the opposing pitcher.
Catcher's protective equipment接手保护装备：
The defensive player who occupies the position of catcher (i.e. the one who catches the pitches) wears a special protection composed of a mask, helmet, chest protector, shin guards. This protects him from the ball hit by the bat or also from uncontrolled pitches of the pitcher. The catcher uses a glove which is particularly padded to soften the impact of fast pitches from the pitcher.
Softball, a game similar to baseball, is played with a ball called a softball. Most of the rules of play for softball are similar to those of baseball, with differences in pitch speed, equipment, and field size. Softball has three major classifications: fast-pitch, slow-pitch, and modified-pitch. There are both men's and women's divisions. In 1887 softball was invented as an indoor sport by George Hancock of the Chicago Board of Trade. The first games took place inside the Farragut Boat Club in Chicago. In 1895 Lewis Rober, a member of the Minneapolis, Minnesota, fire department, invented outdoor softball and called it Kitten League Ball, later shortened to Kitten Ball. Robert invented the game to keep the firemen in shape and busy during the time they spent at the firehouse. In subsequent years the popularity of Kitten Ball spread throughout the United States. In 1922 the name Kitten Ball was changed to Diamond Ball. The name softball was not developed until 1926, when Walter Hakanson of the Denver, Colorado, Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) conceived of it while attending a meeting in Greeley, Colorado, to form the Colorado Amateur Softball Association. In 1933 the first national amateur softball tournament in the United States took place in Chicago, in conjunction with that year's World's Fair. The softball tournament was staged by two American sports enthusiasts, Leo Fischer and Michael J. Pauley, and it provided a basis for a permanent national softball organization in the United States, the ASA. Softball's popularity continued to grow and to spread internationally. By the mid-1990s it was played in more than 85 countries under the auspices of the International Softball Federation (ISF), the international governing body of the sport. The ISF was founded in 1952 and is located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The first ISF Women's World Championship was held in 1965 in Melbourne, Australia, and the first ISF Men's World Championship was held in 1966 in Mexico City. Both were played in the fast-pitch classification. World championships for boys' and girls' fast-pitch softball were first played in 1981. Women's fast-pitch softball debuted as a medal sport at the 1996 Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta.
More about Softball
The International Softball Federation (ISF)国际垒球联合会：
The International Softball Federation (ISF) is the governing body of softball internationally as recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the General Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF). The ISF organizes and conducts world championship competition in women's and men's fast pitch, junior women's and men's fast pitch, women, men and coed slow pitch and women and men's modified pitch. The ISF sanctions regional championships and provides technical support to Regional (Multi-Sport) Games. Additionally the ISF qualifies teams for Olympic softball competition in coordination with the IOC. The ISF provides the official playing rules for international competition including but not limited to: Olympic Games, world championships, regional championships, regional Games and other sanctioned competitions. The ISF has over 124 member nations.  These members are the softball federations /associations of different nations all over the world.
Softball has three major classifications: fast-pitch, slow-pitch, and modified-pitch.
Softball consists of several disciplines: fast pitch, slow pitch, and modified fast pitch. The pitches for these different variations are all underhand. The speeds of the tossed ball goes as the name says. Fast pitch allows two main underhand pitching deliveries; one that involves an entire revolution and the other where the pitchers arm comes back and then forward. Slow pitch requires the pitcher to lob the ball underhanded with an arc that reaches a minimum height of 1.83 meters and a maximum height of 3.66 meters. A modified fast pitch allows underhand deliveries but the arm must not make a complete revolution around the shoulder socket. Internationally, fast pitch is the dominant game. In the United States, slow pitch is played by millions of people in recreational leagues.
World championships in fast pitch softball were first held in 1965 for women and 1966 for men. Slow-pitch world championships began in 1987, and the competition will resume in Florida (USA) in June of 2002. The first world competition for junior men and women was held in 1981 and a World Cup for age 16-under girls began in 2001.
Page: Softball’s Competition in the Olympic Games奥运会上垒球的赛制：佩奇制
Eight teams compete at the Olympic Games in the discipline of women's fast pitch. The host country automatically has a spot because they are the host team, and the other seven teams qualify through world championships and various regional Olympic Qualifiers.
The teams compete in a single pool, playing each of the other seven once. The top four teams advance to the semi-finals, with the first-placed team playing the second-placed team and the third playing the fourth. The loser between teams 1 and 2 then plays the winner between teams 3 and 4, with that winner playing the winner between teams 1 and 2 for the championship.
This Is Not Baseball!垒球和棒球的区别：
Although the two games are very similar, several nuances exist between baseball and softball that set them apart. In softball the ball is larger and softer; pitching is done underhand; the dimensions of the playing field are smaller; the bases are closer together; and the pitcher throws at a distance closer to home plate. There is no base leading or stealing allowed (runners may not move off a base until the pitched ball either crosses home plate or is hit by the batter); and if a pitcher balks, illegally moving his or her feet off the pitching plate while a runner is on base, a runner is not awarded a free base - the pitch is deemed a ball instead.
Inning (or frame)棒球和垒球的局：
The inning is completed when both teams have had their turn on the offensive position (while the opposing players were on the defensive position).
A baseball game is generally nine innings long. A fast pitch softball game is generally seven innings long. Each inning is divided into two halves: top and bottom. Usually, to start a game teams flip a coin to decide which side will bat first. On the league matches, the visiting team always bats in the first half (top) of the inning. Both teams are allowed three outs per half inning. If a game ends in a tie, extra innings are played until one team outscores the other.
As baseball's popularity grew, many people began to see the potential for financial gain. By the 1850s, landowners were regularly maintaining baseball parks to rent to baseball clubs. Baseball teams customarily collected donations from fans to cover the costs. The first fully enclosed baseball park, the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, was completed in 1862. This style of park soon became popular because owners could sell food and drink to spectators without competition from street vendors. The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP), an organization formed in 1858, prohibited members from taking payment for playing baseball. During the early 1860s ballpark owners earned large profits while the amateur ball players provided free entertainment. Pressure from players eventually forced the NABBP to change its policy in 1868 and allow players to accept money. This ruling marked the birth of professional baseball. The first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, began playing in 1869. They traveled the country that year, playing before thousands of fans and winning 60 games without loss. Soon baseball's promoters began forming professional baseball clubs in cities across the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. By 1870 professional players outnumbered amateurs in the NABBP and the remaining amateurs withdrew. In 1871 the organization became the National Association of Professional Baseball Players. The new National Association represented players from ten clubs. In effect, these clubs made up the first professional baseball league. They introduced the practice of league competition and concluded their regular season with a pennant race and championship. However, the National Association suffered from poor management and by 1876 it had folded completely.
More about Professional Baseball
Major League Baseball（MLB）美国职业棒球大联盟：
Major league baseball represents the highest level of baseball competition in North America. It includes teams from the United States and Canada. The major leagues are divided into the National League (NL) and the American League (AL). The teams of each league are grouped into three divisions within their league. In both the NL and AL, the divisions are called the East Division, the Central Division, and the West Division.
The major league baseball season lasts from April (or late March) to October and includes the regular season, the playoffs, and the World Series. Teams play 162 games during the regular season. The team with the most victories in each division becomes the division winner and earns the right to compete in the playoffs. The team with the best record in each league after the division winners also is included in the playoffs as a wild-card team.
Each league holds a separate playoff, featuring their three division winners and the wild-card team. These teams are paired and face each other in a series of games. The teams that win the most games in a series earn the right to move on to the next round of playoffs. The final series in the league playoffs determines which team wins the pennant, or championship, of their league. The NL and AL pennant winners meet in the World Series, and the winner of this series becomes the major league world champion.
The major leagues also hold an annual competition called the All-Star Game, which matches a team of NL players against a team of AL players. Baseball fans select the starting players in the game. It takes place during the All-Star break, a period in the middle of the regular season during which teams temporarily rest from competition.
Team Management 职业球队的管理：
Every Major League Baseball team is part of a baseball club, which includes the team, the owner, and the team management. The owner may be an individual, a group, or a corporation. Club owners provide the money that a team needs to operate. They work with the team management to organize activities such as running a stadium and selling tickets and concessions.
Club owners and management recruit players for the team. The complicated system of recruitment and payment of players is controlled by strict league rules, which involve the number of players clubs may have and the contracts, or agreements, that clubs and players sign. A union, called the Major League Players Association, advises players in these matters.
KEY WORDS 重点词汇
International Softball Federation (ISF)
Main difference between Baseball and Softball棒球与垒球的主要区别：
Weight of ball 球重
Around length of ball 球周长
Max. length of bat 球棒最长限度
Max. weight of bat 球棒最大重量
Distance between base 垒间距离
Distance of homerun 本垒打距离
Distance of pitcher 投球距离
Pitcher’s way 投球方法
Pitcher’s speed 投手投球速度
Baseball is played on a level field, which usually covers about 0.8 hectares. The playing area is divided into the infield and the outfield. Together, these two areas make up fair territory. The rest of the field is called foul territory. The infield consists of a square-shaped plot called the diamond. One corner of the diamond is marked by a five-sided piece of rubber called a home plate. Batters hit the ball from a position on either side of home plate, depending on their preference. At the three other corners of the infield—moving counterclockwise from home plate—are first base, second base, and third base. Each base is marked with a canvas bag. The pitcher's mound, a slightly raised piece of ground, lies near the center of the infield, between home plate and second base. A strip of rubber is nailed to the top of the mound, 18 m from home plate. Pitchers place one foot on the rubber when they put the ball in play. Base lines run from home plate to first base and from home plate to third base. Extensions of these lines, called foul lines, run along the outer edges of the outfield. These lines divide foul and fair territory. Base lines also extend from first to second to third base, marking the path of a runner. The region of the outfield behind first base is called right field, the region behind second base is called center field, and the region behind third base is called left field. A fence runs along the farthest limits of the outfield. Two covered shelters called dugouts are located in foul territory along each base line. Players occupy the dugouts when they are not on the field. The baseball field is also designed with a number of markings that indicate the use of certain regions. Boxes outlined in chalk on each side of home plate indicate where a batter may stand. Chalk boxes in foul territory near first and third base define the position of team coaches. Similar regions limit where pitchers may warm up during the game and where players may prepare before batting.
A baseball team fields nine players. On the field, each player is responsible for a particular position. The pitcher puts the ball into play by throwing it toward home plate. Each throw is called a pitch. By holding the ball in special ways and adjusting its spin, pitchers can throw a variety of pitches. They use these techniques, along with changing the speed of their throw, to make it more difficult for batters to hit the ball. The catcher receives the ball and returns it to the pitcher unless the batter hits the ball. Catchers also defend home plate when a runner tries to score. The first baseman, second baseman, and third baseman are each stationed at or near a base. The shortstop stands between second and third base. These players are responsible for fielding, or handling, the ball when it is hit to the infield and for putting out runners as they attempt to advance around the diamond. Three outfielders are stationed individually in right field, center field, and left field. They are responsible for fielding balls hit to the outfield.
More about Baseball
All area in fair territory beyond the infield and bounded by fences. There is no strict dividing mark between the infield and the outfield. The players who cover the three outfield positions: left field, center field and right field, are called outfielders.
The territory including the four bases and that area within it. Also called the diamond because the infield is shaped like a diamond. The distance from home to second base is longer than from home to first, home to third, or first to third. The infield is also the all-inclusive term for the four infielders: the first baseman, second baseman, third baseman and shorstop.
The two straight lines, extending from home plate past the outside edges of first and third bases to the outfield fence, which define fair territory.
The five-sided slab of whitened rubber, 17 inches wide, which the batter stands beside to hit the pitch.
The bases are located on the infield diamond. First, second and third base are marked by white canvas bags, 15 inches square, not less than 3 or more than 5 inches thick, filled with soft material, and securely attached to the ground. They differ from home base, which is five sided slab of whitened rubber. It is 17 inches square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two are 8 1/2 inches, and two are 12 inches. It is set in the ground so that the 17-inch edge faces the pitcher's plate.
All bases, including home base, are in fair territory, and are 90 feet apart in the counterclockwise order in which they are to be run.
home base本垒，first base一垒，second base二垒，third base三垒
The direct line between each base, along which the baserunner must generally run.
The pitcher's mound is located near the middle of the diamond with its pitching rubber. This is where the defense teams' pitcher positions himself to deliver the ball (pitch) and try to get out the opposing batter.
A rectangular slab of white rubber 24 inches long and 6 inches wide set in the ground on the pitcher's mound. The pitcher must have his foot on a part of the rubber when he starts his delivery.
Area within which the catcher shall stand until the pitcher delivers the ball.
A rectangular area beside home plate where a batter stands to hit the pitch. It is a six feet long and four feet wide rectangle, and the batter must keep both feet in the box at all times when he is hitting.
They are two circles, one for each team located half way from the batting box and the dugout, where the hitter who is next in the batting order gets ready for his turn at bat.
Coaching Box 跑垒指导员区：
They are the two marked areas of the field reserved for the coaches who during the offensive phase direct the offensive strategies to the hitter and the runner.
Area next to the playing field, usually alongside the foul lines, where relief pitchers and other substitutes warm up.
Dugout or Bench 球员席位：
Seating facilities reserved for players, substitutes and other team members in uniform when they are not actively engaged on the playing field.
Person appointed by the club to be responsible for the team's actions on the field, and to represent the team in communications with the umpire and the opposing team. A player may be appointed manager.
Team member in uniform appointed by the manager to perform such duties as the manager may designate, such as but not limited to acting as base coach.
Team on whose grounds the game is played, or if the game is played on neutral grounds, the home team shall be designated by mutual agreement.
1B = First Base
2B = Second Base
3B = Third Base
C = Catcher
DH = Designated Hitter
OF = Outfielder
P = Pitcher
SS = Shortstop
Defense (Or Defensive) 守队或守队队员：
Team, or any player of the team, in the field.
Any defensive player.
Pitcher (or “hurler”)投手：
Fielder designated to deliver the pitch to the batter. The pitcher is the player who starts the defensive action by pitching with the objective to retire the opposing batter. The pitcher positions himself on the mound, near the center of the diamond and delivers the ball keeping one foot in contact with the pitcher's plate until the ball has been released. The target of his pitch shall be the strike zone. The area which upper limit is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants and the lower level is a horizontal line at the top of the kneecap.
Plays in a crouched position directly behind home plate and catches the baseball thrown by the pitcher. Along with the pitcher, he decides which pitches should be thrown to each batter.
Pitcher and catcher.
Fielder who occupies a position in the infield.
Positioned next to the bag at first. He fields the baseball when it is hit down the first base foul line and also covers the base on “force plays.”
Plays in the gap between second base and the first baseman. He fields the “grounders” and “pop-ups” hit to this part of the infield, covers plays to second, and relays throws from the outfielders.
Stands between second and third base and fields balls hit to this side of the infield. He is often involved in force plays and “double plays” with the second baseman.
Plays just to the left of third base. He covers third when runners approach and is responsible for fielding balls hit down the third base foul line.
These three players catch the “fly balls” and field the base hits that go through the infield. They need to have strong throwing arms to get the baseball back into the infield to prevent runners from advancing along the bases.
left outfielder左外，center outfielder中外，right outfielder右外。
Offense or Offensive攻队或攻队队员：
Team, or any player of the team, at bat.
Offensive player who takes his position in the batter's box.
Term that identifies the offensive player who has just finished his time at bat until he is put out or until the play on which he became a runner ends.
Offensive player who is advancing toward, or touching, or returning to any base.
Team member in uniform who is stationed in the coach's box at first or third base to direct the batter and the runners.
A rule adopted by the American League in 1973 which allows each team to appoint a hitter to substitute at bat for pitcher. That hitter need not play in the field, but he may take a regular turn at bat in place of the pitcher, in any position in the batting order the manager chooses to insert him.
One batter substituted for another, so called because he is usually used in a pinch-when there are runners on base late in the game and a hit is needed.
A runner who substitutes for a teammate who has already reached a base; the original runner is out of the game from that time on. A pinch runner is used because he is faster than the man on base.
A substitute pitcher who replaces the starting pitcher or another relief pitcher.
Rules of Baseball (1)
Throughout the game, play revolves around the action between the pitcher and the batter. The pitcher has the first opportunity to put the batter out. Pitchers throw the ball to the batter, usually attempting to pass it through the strike zone, an area directly over home plate and roughly between the batter's armpits and knees. Pitches thrown into this area that the batter does not hit are called strikes. Strikes also include (1) pitches that the batter swings at but does not hit and (2) the first two times that a batter hits the ball into foul territory. After three strikes, a batter is out. Pitches outside of the strike zone that the batter does not swing at are called balls. If a pitcher throws four balls, the batter proceeds to first base. This is called a base on balls or a walk. An umpire determines whether pitches are strikes or balls. Batters who reach base safely are referred to as base runners. Base runners can proceed to the next base when a subsequent batter hits the ball. If a batted ball is caught on a fly, the runner may advance, but may only leave the current base after the catch is made. Subsequent batters sometimes sacrifice their chance for getting a base hit in order to advance the runner. One way to do this is to hit a sacrifice fly ball. Another way is to bunt—that is, simply hold the bat out toward a pitch rather than swing the bat, so that when the ball is hit, it rolls slowly toward the infield. Ordinarily, in a sacrifice, the batter is put out, and the runner reaches the next base safely. Runners also may advance by stealing a base. They may steal only under certain circumstances, such as when the pitcher is delivering a pitch or when the catcher drops the ball. To prevent steals, fielders must tag the runners by touching them
with the ball. If the batter hits the ball, fielders have opportunities to prevent the batter from reaching a base safely, known as putting the batter out. For example, a batter is ruled out if a fielder catches a batted ball before it hits the ground, in foul or fair territory. A batter is also out if a fielder holding the ball tags the batter or tags first base before the batter can reach it. Fielders often retrieve the ball from where it is hit and throw it to the player covering first base, who tags the base. If the batter reaches first base safely, however, fielders have additional opportunities to put players out and prevent a run. If a runner occupies a base to which a subsequent batter or runner must advance, runners are forced to move to the next base. In a force, fielders can put the runner out by tagging the base before the runner reaches it. If there is no force—that is, if there is no runner approaching from the preceding base—fielders must tag the runner out.
More about Baseball
A pitch is a ball delivered to the batter by the pitcher. All other deliveries of the ball by one player to another are thrown balls.
The area over home plate between the batter's armpits and the top of his knees, where a pitch is called a strike even if he does not swing the bat.
A pitch outside the strike zone that the batter does not try to hit.
One of the two legal pitching positions.
Wind Up Position正面投球
One of the two legal pitching positions.
A wild pitch is one so high, so low, or so wide of the plate that it cannot be handled with ordinary effort by the catcher.
The objective for teams playing in the field is to get three players on the batting team out.
A batter is out when 1) he hits a ball, fair or foul, that is caught by a fielder before it touches the ground, 2) he is tagged, or first base is touched by a fielder holding the ball before the batter gets there, or 3) he strikes out.
A base runner is out when 1) he is between bases and is tagged by a fielder holding the ball or 2) he is forced out.
The pitcher delivers three strikes preventing the batter from hitting the ball.
There is fly out any time a defensive player catches an opponents batted ball before it touches the ground. The batter is out. This catch can be performed in any area of the field, also in foul territory.
The runners who are on the bases may try to advance to the next base only after the ball has touched the glove of the defensive player who catches it.
Force out 封杀出局：
The pitcher delivers his pitch. The batter, once having hit the ball is obliged to advance to first base. Then the defensive team may record a force out: by picking up the ball and throwing it to the first baseman (who must touch base) before the batter touches the base:
An out made when a baserunner, forced to run because another team-mate must run to the base he is occupying, cannot make the next base safely.
When a fielder holding the ball touches a runner while he is off base or the actual base while ball is 'live'.
A tag is the action of a fielder in touching a base with his body while holding the ball securely and firmly in his hand or glove; or touching a runner with the ball, or with his hand or glove holding the ball, while holding the ball securely and firmly in his hand or glove.
Double Play is an action in which the defensive team succeeds to make 2 outs in the course of a same play.
Triple Play is an action in which the defensive team succeeds to put 3 outs in the course of a same play. It is a very difficult play and therefore it seldom happens.
The Pick Off is a defensive play which aims to refrain the runners on the bases from gaining too much ground. The defensive team tries to catch the opposing runner off a base and perform a TAG out.
In the action of a Pick Off, the pitcher throws the ball to first base, instead of throwing it towards the hitter, attempting to surprise the runner. The first baseman tries to tag the runner while he is not in contact with the base.
A good pick off motion is essential to the success of a pitcher, and therefore many work hard at perfecting their throw to first.
Declaration by the umpire that a runner is entitled to the base for which he was trying.
1. A pitch judged by the umpire to have passed over home plate between the batter's armpits and the top of his knees. 2. A pitch that the batter fails to hit when he swings. 3. A foul ball when the batter has fewer than two strikes against him.
A ball hit sharply in a straight line roughly parallel to the ground.
A ball that barely touches the bat before continuing to the catcher.
A ball hit in the air to the outfield.
An attempt by the batter to tap the ball instead of swinging at it.
Fair ball or Foul ball界内球、界外球：
That part of the playing field within, and including the first base and third base lines, from home base to the bottom of the playing field fence and perpendicularly upwards. All foul lines are in fair territory
A part of the playing field outside the first and third base lines extended to the fence and perpendicularly upwards.
Batter: Fair Or Foul Ball?
Home plate is in fair territory and is treated like the ground. There is nothing special about it. There is nothing special about the pitcher's rubber. It is part of the ground. If a ball hits it and bounces foul before passing first or third it is a foul ball. Home plate and all the bases are in fair territory. Any batted ball that touches first, second or third is a fair ball. A ball that settles on home plate is a fair ball. A ball that hits home plate first is NOT a FOUL ball.
Two different criteria apply to judging fair or foul balls:
Balls that FIRST touch the ground or a player in the OUTFIELD and
Balls that FIRST touch the ground or a player in the INFIELD
If a batter gets on base by hitting the ball so that fielders cannot successfully field it, the batter has recorded a base hit. On a base hit, the runner tries to advance as many bases as possible without being put out. A base hit in which a batter gets to first base is called a single; one in which the batter gets to second base is called a double; and one in which the batter gets to third base is called a triple. Batters can reach first base in several ways, in addition to base hits and walks. The most common are (1) when the batter is hit by a pitched ball; (2) when a fielder mishandles a ball hit in fair territory and the batter reaches base safely as a result of the fielding mistake, known as an error; (3) when the catcher interferes with the batter's attempt to swing at the pitch; and (4) when the catcher drops a third strike and the batter reaches first base before a fielder tags the base or the batter. If fielders put two runners out in one play, it is called a double play. As the runner tries to advance from first base to second base, an infielder gets the ball, steps on second base to force out the base runner, and quickly throws the ball to the player covering first base to put out the batter. A runner scores by successfully moving around all the bases and crossing home plate without being put out. Scoring is usually the result of a combination of base hits, walks, or sacrifices; skillful baserunning; or errors by the defensive team. Sometimes the batter circles the bases on one hit. This is known as a home run. A batter usually scores a home run by hitting the ball over the outfield fence. On rare occasions, however, the batter may round all four bases without hitting the ball over the fence. This play is known as an inside-the-park home run. If there are base runners at the time the home run is hit, those players also round the bases and score. If there are base runners on all three bases when the batter hits a home run, the team at bat scores four runs, and the play is called a grand slam.
More about Baseball
Order in which a team must come to bat. Also called the lineup. If a player bats out of turn, deliberately or otherwise, he is out, provided the team in the field realizes the error and appeals to the umpire immediately after the illegal batter has finished his time at bat. The only way the batting order can be changed is the use of a substitute batter (one not already in the game). Once a player has been substituted for, he is no longer permitted to re-enter in the game.
Base hit on which only first base is legally and safely reached.
A two base hit. Also called a two bagger.
A hit that allows a batter to reach third base.
Also known as a homer， a hit by a batter, which usually goes over the outfield fence, that enables him to run around all the bases safely.
Run Batted In打点：
Also known as RBI. Credit given to a batter for each run that scores when he makes a safe hit, is retired by an infield or outfield putout, or when a run is forced in because he becomes a base runner.
A home run with a baserunner on each base, scoring four runs.
An automatic advance to first base for the batter after the pitcher throws four balls. Also called “Base on Balls”.
Hit by Pitch击中击球员：
If a ball delivered by a pitcher hits the batter, in spite of his attempt to avoid being hit, it is a Hit by Pitch and the batter is entitled to first base.
Play in which the batter is out but is not charged with an official time at bat because he has succeeded in moving a teammate along on the bases at the expense of his turn at bat, whether intentionally or not. There are two types of sacrifices: the sacrifice bunt and the sacrifice fly.
Bunt pulled down the first base line by a left handed hitter. A bunt in the same direction by a right handed hitter is a push bunt. The drag bunt is used mostly by fast runners.
In order to make a smaller target for the fielder to tag and to make sure not to overrun the base, a runner going into a base will often slide.
The act of a runner gaining a base without the help of a hit, an error or a walk. Occurs when the pitched ball is on its way to the batter.
The Squeeze Play is performed with a runner on third base and less than two outs. The batter bunts the pitcher's pitch to the ground in order to allow the runner to reach home plate safely.
The defensive team tries to pick up the ball and throw it to the catcher who defends home plate.
SAFETY SQUEEZE: the runner on third base runs to home after seeing the ball bunted to the ground.
SUICIDE SQUEEZE: the runner on third base runs to home when the pitcher begins to deliver the pitch.
KEY WORDS 重点词汇
Techniques of Volleyball
When volleyball started out, there was a pretty basic plan to win the game. Get the ball over the net to the other side in three hits or less. It did not take long before the basic strategy of "set, spike" came about. It was natural to develop a strategy that allowed for the smooth progression of the set, spike. This is now referred to as the "4-2". The 4-2 offense was one of the first strategic offenses used in volleyball. Each team has 4 hitters and 2 setters. The setters play opposite each other, so that one is always in the front row and one is always in the back row. When in the front row, the setter sets; when in the back row, the setter passes. Therefore, there is always a setter and 2 hitters in the front row. In an effort to have the most hitters or blockers on the front row at the same time, the "6-2" system was developed. The key feature of the 6-2 offense is that there are two setters on the court at a time opposite each other in the rotation and the primary setter is the one in the back row. This means that the three front row players, including the setter in the front row, are all hitters or blockers.
In a 6-2 system, how do you get into position? When your team is serving, you can switch immediately, as soon as the server strikes the ball. When the other team is serving, you must first receive the serve, then attack, then switch. The back row setter plays defense first, if the other team attacks, the back row setter might need to dig. There is also a 6-3 variant where there are 3 setters on the court at a time. In this case the setter who is in the right back (serving) or middle back position is usually the primary setter. When two setters are in the back row the left back one is just a regular defender. The setters in the front row are hitters and blockers. Situations similar to the 6-3 may arise when rotating in additional players from the side. The exact formations may vary slightly in this case but the basic principles remain the same. The 5-1 is perhaps the most complicated volleyball formation in volleyball to run. However, used correctly it can be a very effective formation which can cause confusion for opponents. The line-up is basic: one setter and five hitters. Unlike the 6-2, where there are two setters who alternate between setting and hitting, in the 5-1, the single setter must be fast, accurate and in good shape. Also, because of the unique role of being a front row setter, it helps if the setter can jump over the net for blocking and dinking. A setter, attacking or dumping the ball on the second hit will ruin even the best defense's day.
A vital part of volleyball offense is the spike, a powerful smash over the net. To spike the ball a player must jump high in the air, using good timing in hitting the ball powerfully and placing it so that it is very difficult to return. Back-row players may spike if their takeoff is from behind the 3-meter attack line. A ball well placed, at varying heights and near the net for a teammate to spike it, is called a set. A tip, or placement, is a lightly hit ball deflected or dropped into the court of the opponents and is used by a spiker to surprise opposing blockers when they anticipate a spike. Single or multiple blocks are usually employed in volleyball. In such a defense, one or more front-row players jump up on their side of the net, with hands and arms placed in front of an attacking spiker, to hit back the spiked ball or deflect it to a teammate who can then return it across the net. In the indoor game, a block, while counting as a touch to regain possession for a team, does not count as one of the three hits a team is allowed on each possession. A number of skills contribute to successful team play. One of these is an accurate service, to a weak spot on the opposing side, delivered either with topspin and speed or as a deceptive floater—that is, a ball that seems to wobble and slip uncertainly in the air. Control is also important in receiving the service, and in recovering a spike and deflecting the ball accurately to fellow team members.
More about Volleyball
System of volleyball排球的阵容配备：
Five-One (5-1) System 五一配备：
An offensive system that uses five spikers and one setter.
Four-Two (4-2) System 四二配备：
An offensive system using four spikers and two setters. The setters are spikers when they are in the front row, and setters when they are in the back row.
Six-Two (6-2) System 六二配备：
An offense with four spikers and two spiker/setters. The setters are setters when they are in the front row, and defenders when they are in the back row.
Spike (hit, smash; kill) 扣球：
l As you leave the floor to jump, pull the hitting arm back with the elbow and hand at shoulder height or higher.
l The hand should be open and relaxed, with the palm facing away from the ear.
l The elbow should swing forward and raise above the head.
l Then the arm and hand swing over the top as the hand contacts the ball.
l This is followed by the palm and fingers, which then snap through the ball.
l Contact point is slightly in front of and as high as possible above the hitting shoulder.
超手扣球super-hand spike; surpass the block hit; spike over the block
重扣hard spike; powerhouse smash
轻扣half-speed spike; slow spike; pat hit; dink spike
斜线扣球oblique spike; cross spike; crosscourt spike
直线扣球straight spike; line shot
远网扣球distance attack; far-net-toss spike
直臂扣球straight arm spike
钩手扣球hook smash; windmill smash
甩腕(扣球动作)snap of wrist
原地起跳扣球standing jump spike
助跑起跳扣球running jump spike
近体快球quick-A, quick spike from close set
短平快球quick-B, quick spike from flat short set
背快球quick-C, quick spike from backward set; 也叫back one
背平快球(背溜)quick-D, quick spike from backward short set
平拉开扣球open spike, quick spike from flat wide set
前快front slide, quick slide in front of the setter.
quick slide; alternate position spike空间差：
It’s a quick attack that includes a takeoff and a broad jump along the net.
前飞forward flight; front slide:
背飞backward flight, flight behind; back slide
单脚背飞One-footed back slide
delayed spike, spiking after delayed take off; pump时间差：
That’s a play in which an attacker fakes spiking a quick set, and then hits a medium-high set at the same location.
l Start in the ready position facing the target.
l Spread fingers in the shape of the ball above the head.
l Form a triangle with thumbs and pointerfingers (hands should not be touching)
l Place hands directly in front of the face close to the forehead. This position is called neutral and is always the starting position for the set.
volley pass; overhand pass双手头顶传球
When a setter attempts to score rather than set the ball to a setter. Also called a shoot set.
A set delivered behind the setter. A set made when the setter's back is towards the hitter.
High set, usually delivered to the left sideline, when the play goes awry.
Pass and dig一传和救球：
The basic skill is called the "pass" when receiving the serve, and the "dig" when handling an opponent's attack.
l Start in the "Ready Position"
l Straight arms away from the body
l Extend legs and move arms from shoulders
l Contact the ball on the FOREARMS
l Finish with hands pointing to target
Receiving a serve or the first contact of the ball with the intent to control the ball to another player.
Passing a spiked or rapidly hit ball. Slang for the art of retrieving an attacked ball close to the floor.
A defensive retrieval technique in which a player extends for a ball near the floor, causing both feet to leave the floor. The player contacts the ball with one or both arms and slides on the abdomen and thighs.
That’s a one-handed defensive technique in which the player flattens his hand against the floor in order to save the ball.
It’s a defensive posture where a defensive player sits over one heel while playing a ball and rolls on his back. Used to play balls close to the floor and to cushion hard spikes during retrieval attempts, this skill is also known as a half roll.
That’s a defensive retrieval technique similar to a dive, except that after contacting the ball with either one or two arms, the player turns as the body contacts the floor and rolls as the momentum of the movement carries the feet over the shoulder, returning the player to his or her feet.
l Stand facing the net with the foot opposite the hitting hand forward.
l The ball is held at waist level.
l The player leans forward as they swing their arm foreward and contact the ball.
l The hand holding the ball is dropped just before the contact.
l The player hits underneath the ball with the fist or heel of the hand.
l The hitting arm follows through in the direction of the target.
underarm (underhand) serve下手发球：
A serve performed with an underhand striking action. The ball is usually contacted with the heel of the hand.
Serving the ball and striking it with the hand above the shoulder. A serve performed with an overhand throwing action.
round-house (windmill) serve 抡臂发球：
The arm moves in a windmill action, and the ball is contacted directly over the hitting shoulder.
The server uses an approach, toss, takeoff and serves the ball with a spiking motion while in the air.
A serve with no spin that follows an erratic path. The ball is hit with only a momentary point of contact and very little follow through.
The server contacts the lower mid-section of the center of the ball; he uses the heel of the hand to initially contact the ball and then uses wrist snap to roll the hand over the ball, imparting topspin.
ceiling serve; lobbing serve; sky ball serve高吊球：
An underhand serve that is hit so high it looks like it is falling straight down.
l Seal the net with your hands, thumbs pointing to the ceiling a balls width apart, and arms locked.
l Whenever possible extend your arms across the net (penetration).
l Keep your shoulders square to the net.
l When you move along the net to block, plant so that you jump straight up and down.
l Land in the same place from where you jump.
l Seal and be square to the net.
Offense consisting of plays where two or more players attack at different places on the net at different times.
back row attack后排进攻：
When a back row player takes off to jump behind the 10-foot/3-meter line and attacks the ball.
A play that starts as a cross but changes the direction of its play-set hitter with a veer.
The clockwise movement of players around the court and through the serving position following a side out. Players must retain their initial rotational order throughout the entire game, but once the ball is contacted on serve they are allowed to move anywhere.
To move from one sideline to the other, usually in approaching to attack; a type of offense that uses the swing approach.
A combination in which one player attacks immediately behind another.
Coming from the Italian word meaning free, the libero position is a new feature in the game of volleyball. Teams have great freedom in substituting this specialized position. It was originally designed to create a role for the smaller player in the men's game. The libero can substitute at any time for a back row player, but cannot serve, spike or rotate into the front zone; and is not allowed to set a ball to attack from in front of the three meter line. It demands overhead receiving skills, unwavering confidence, and great communication skills. The obvious trade off is that under the libero rule, those two bigger players now get the chance to serve when they would not have before. Since the libero is primarily a passer and is on the court the majority of the time, this player can provide a steadying influence that emanates from his/her ability to get the ball to the setter's hands. In other words, the libero can consistently initiate the offense with an accurate first touch. While the setter is the floor leader and the middle blocker is the heart of the first line of defense, the libero should control the serve receive. Many coaches will have their libero play center back on defense, and thus count on this defender to be the most mobile and to cover the most territory. The ability to chase down deflections off the block beyond the back line demands that the defender be quick and efficient in their moves toward deflected balls. A good libero must be able to anticipate and then react.
More about Volleyball
Designation of libero自由人的指派：
Each team has the right to designate among the list of 12 players one (1) specialized defensive player “Libero”. The Libero must be recorded on the scoresheet before the match in the special line reserved for this. His/her number must also be recorded on the line-up sheet of the first set. The Libero can be neither team captain nor game captain. In case of injury of the designated Libero, and with the previous approval of the first referee, the coach can re-designate as new Libero one of the players not on the court at the moment of the re-designation.
Equipment of libero自由人的装备：
The Libero player must wear a uniform (or jacket/bib for the re-designated Libero) whose jersey at least must contrast in colour with that of the other members of the team. The Libero uniform may have a different design, but it must be numbered like the rest of the team members.
When the Libero replaces a player in the back zone, it is not counted as a substitution. These replacements are unlimited. Only the player whom he/she replaced may replace the Libero. After the Libero is replaced, he/she must stay out one rally before replacing another player in the back zone. Replacements may take place: 1) at the start of the game after the 2nd referee has checked the line-up and 2) while the ball is out of play before the 1st referee blows the whistle for service.
KEY WORDS 重点词汇
How many times we sweat, the pains once filled in our memory,
Just because we always believe in, endeavor leads to success.
We always encourage ourselves, to succeed needs to make efforts,
Our blood is ebullient on the court, the giant rises from the east.
Believe in yourself,
You will achieve success and work miracle.
Believe in yourself,
The dream’s in your hand and this is your world.
Believe in yourself,
You will surpass limit and surpass yourself.
Believe in yourself,
When all has elapsed, you will be the first.
CBA, the Chinese Basketball Association, was established in June in 1956. It is a non-governmental organization in charge of basketball at national level. The administration center of basketball, a sub-division of CBA, takes the responsibility of promoting the sport in China. After the introduction of some reforms in 1994, the first CBA league was launched the following year, with 12 teams participating. By 2000, there were 43 men's teams, and 42 women's teams registered under CBA. The total member of players had reached 998. The advent of the With CBA league represented a giant step in the development of professional basketball in China. In 1989, the first basketball club, sponsored by Anshan Steel Company, was founded in Shenyang. By 2000, the members of professional basketball clubs registered under CBA had reached 29.
Jerry: Wang zhizhi has been the most recent player in the NBA. If you look at Bateer who is another player has NBA talent. And Yaoming, who is another talented person. These players are guys who have played in the Chinese national team, and have had exposure overseas, played in Olympics. So these players are the players that are look to us as NBA players.
Jessy Mcmullen: How did Dallas Mavs pick Wang zhizhi. He is seven feet one. He is very skilled. He shoots the ball left-handed as well as anybody. There are very few player in NBA can shoot the ball as well as Wang. But not only can he shoot the ball well, he passes well. He has good post moves, he understands the game, he works hard, he is very smart. He has the whole package to become a great NBA player. As each week goes by. Wang gets better every week. You can see how he develops. He 's been a big, big part of the Mavs success this year.
l Became the first Chinese player ever to play in a regular season NBA game when he logged eight minutes (six points, three rebounds) vs. Atlanta on April 5, 2001
l Signed contract with the Mavericks on April 4, 2001
l Averaged a team-high 13.5 points and more than five rebounds per game in only 26.8 mpg during the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia
l In the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, averaged 11.1 points and 5.6 rebounds per game
l Prior to joining the Mavericks, led the Rockets to their sixth straight Chinese Basketball Association Championship in 2000-01
l Prior to joining the Mavericks, led Rockets to their sixth straight Chinese Basketball Assosciation championship in 2000-01
l Both of his parents were basketball players
l Wears the number 16 because he hopes it will bring him good luck; wore number 14 for Bayi and wears number 15 for the Chinese National Team
For the Denver Nuggets, we showed interest in Barteer who we feel has the strong body, very good size, has a good feel of the game of basketball. In the NBA, you have to be physical, you have to be strong, especially (when) you play in the post or in the painted area. He does a good job of doing that. Playing physical, he also can pass, double-team. In NBA, lots of teams double the post player, that he can pass the double-teams. Also he can knock down 15-17- foot shots, which makes him very versatile and play down inside the post. So Barteer has good chance to play in the NBA.
2002: Averaged 22.0 ppg, 12.8 rpg and 2.3 apg in 42.2 mpg in 21 contests for the Beijing Ducks （Shot .493 (180-365) from the field and .346 (37-107) from three-point range） Earned MVP honors at the 2002 Chinese Basketball Association All-Star game with a 21-point performance.
2001: Helped lead China to a Silver Medal at the World University Games and the ABC Championship. Led the Beijing Ducks to the semifinals of the CBA League.
1993: Joined the Chinese National Basketball Team as an 18-year-old.
1992: Played for the Chinese National Junior Team. Was the starting center for the ABC Junior Championships.
l Name is pronounced (MENK) (ba-TUR)
l Established the Bateer Basketball Foundation in February of 2002 for Chinese fans to donate money to build a school the Basketball Hope Charity School - in his home town of Hangjing County, Erdos Prairie of Inner Mongolia
l The second player from China to play in the NBA, following Wang Zhizhi
Yaoming, only 22 years old, won the MVP honors in both the regular season and playoffs in China's first division basketball league ended last April. If Yao goes to NBA, he will be the third Chinese player to join the world's top league. Many NBA teams have showed their interest to the 22-year-old sensation, saying they would select him on their first right if he is available in June's draft.
Full name is Yao Ming, with Yao his surname and Ming his given name ... both of his parents played for China's National Teams, as his father Yao Zhi Yuan stands 6-foot-7 and his mother Fang Feng Di stands 6-foot-3 ... becomes the first-ever number one pick to come from an international basketball league ... measures in as the tallest and second-heaviest player ever taken with the first overall selections in the NBA Draft ... will become the third Chinese player in NBA history upon entering the NBA, following fellow Chinese National Team members Wang Zhizhi and Mengke Bateer ... joined the Youth Sports School at age nine and received formal training in basketball for the first time ... was then selected to the Shanghai Youth Team at age 14 ... has played against elite international talent since being named to the Chinese National Team at age 18 ... scored 10.5 points per game with team-leading averages of 6.0 rebounds and 2.2 blocked shots in the 2000 Olympic Games ... also led China with a field goal percentage of .639 in the Olympics ... averaged 13.4 points on .724 shooting with 10.1 rebounds and 2.8 blocked shots in the 2001 Asian Basketball Championship for Men, helping China capture the title and an accompanying berth in the 2002 World Championship ... stands as the fifth number one overall pick in franchise history ... nicknamed "The Little Giant" ... enjoys playing computer games ... studied at the Shanghai Physical & Sport Technic Education Institute ... is an honorary student at the Shanghai Foreign Language Institute.
Chinese Women’s Basketball Team
Since it was established, the Chinese women's basketball team has been the dominant power in Asia. When they took part in the World Basketball Championships in San Paul in Brazil in 1983, the first international competition, they came the 3rd. And that was the first time this squad participated in a major international competition. In the following year, they also took bronze at the 22nd Olympic Game in Los Angles. The team displayed on court began to grab world attention. Since then the Chinese Women' Basketball team has been one of the top-ranked teams in the world. It was in 1992, at the 25th Olympic Games in Barcelona that the Chinese Women's Basketball team reached its peak, reaching the final and wining the silver medal.
The successes of Chinese Women team can be partially attributed to a super star and powerful center ——Zheng Haixia. In1984, Zheng became both the youngest and tallest Chinese women's player when he played for a Chinese team at the Los Angeles Olympics. In 1989, she set a new record when she mesmorize the Soviet Union team by scoring 67 points in an invitational game. She played four times at the Olympic Games for China, and her average FG rate in those game was 80%. She won many titles during her basket career, including MVP at world championships in 1994. In 1997, zheng joined the WNBA in the United States, and became a professional basketball player. With her help, the Los Angels Sparks has become a strong force in the WNBA. Now, today she is the head coach of Bayi Women's basketball team.
CUBA, the Chinese University Basketball Association, was founded in 1985. Before the CUBA league was launched in 1998, it had already done a lot of work in promoting the sport on campus. When the CUBA league was held for the first time, it drew 617 teams form 26 provinces and cities. During the 2000-01season, CUBA activities enjoyed even greater popularity on campus. Many famous universities have begun to put huge effort into succeding in this new league. Compared with NCAA, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which has been in existence for 63 years, the CUBA is still very much in its infancy. However, at its current rate of development, the future leaves bright for this new basketball association in China.
The sport of diving began in Europe in the early 1800s when Swedish and German gymnasts took their acrobatics to the beach to practise their jumps and twists over water. Diving was originally considered a diversion from gymnastics, and was only seen as a sport in its own right in the late 19th century.
Diving from a Rock, 6th c.B.C.
What could be more exhilarating than watching a diver execute a dive with twists and turns in mere fractions of seconds before plunging through the water? A sport of grace and finesse, diving also involves considerable speed, as the diver's body can hit the water's surface going faster than a car traveling through town, making diving a unique blend of athletic and artistic talents. No one knows exactly when diving officially began, but people have been jumping off cliffs and into the sea for millennia. Historical evidence suggests that it dates back at least to Greece's ancient Games. Long before the modern springboard and platform, people dived off cliffs and bridges into the water below, invigorated by the adrenaline rush as they descended through the air and plunged into the water below. Diving developed further as an athletic discipline in 17th-century Europe, when gymnasts practiced their acrobatics over water. The first official diving competition took place in 1880 in England. Initially, the only dive was a straight forward one, resembling a swimmer's standard entry into the pool.
While swimming and diving are seen as inter-connected sporting disciplines, part of the same water family so to speak, contemporary diving has more in common really with gymnastics. In the early 1800s, Swedish and German gymnasts practiced their somersaults and twists over water. Their practices became known as fancy diving, a term that stuck until the early 1900s. When diving debuted at the 1904 Olympics, one of the two events was a plunge for distance, the goal being to swim the furthest underwater after a dive. The event was dropped immediately because it was not well received by the audience -- not really a spectator sport as most of the action happened under the water. At the 1908 Games in London, the pool was 100m long and the diving tower was removable. In 1908, springboard diving was added to the original platform diving event. At the 1912 Stockholm Games "fancy highdiving" was introduced and it was the first time women were allowed to compete in their own platform event. Women had a springboard event which began in 1920. The first concrete diving tower appeared in 1924 in Paris. In the 1920s, divers grew tired of the slow rotation from rigid take-offs starting with a straight position. They became fancier as the pike and tuck positions began to dominate, making multiple somersaults possible.
More About Diving
Development of World Diving跳水的发展：
Diving developed in Europe in the 17th century, when gymnasts practised their acrobatics over water. The modern sport of diving originated in Germany and Sweden at the beginning of the 19th century. The sports were named springboard diving, plain high diving, and fancy high diving. Competitive diving first gained international prominence in the early 20th century, when men’s plain high diving debuted as an Olympic event at the 1904 Games. Springboard diving joined the Games four years later in London, England. Men’s fancy high diving and women’s plain high diving became Olympic sports at the 1912 Games in Stockholm, Sweden.
Diving was contested at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis, and its appearance on the Olympic programme in both springboard and platform events has been continuous since 1908. The diving programme has been relatively constant since 1928, with men and women competing in both the 10 metre platform and the 3 metre springboard events. Prior to that time, a men's event for plain high diving was on the programme in 1912, 1920 and 1924. Early Olympic competitions also differed in the heights of the platform and springboard.
Two new events were added to the Olympic programme in 2000 for both men and women, these being synchronised platform diving and synchronised springboard diving. These events consist of two divers leaving the platform or springboard simultaneously and diving together. Usually the athletes perform the same dive, although occasionally dives which complement each other are chosen.
Diving Facilities and Equipment跳水设施：
Platform competitions use three heights: 5 m (16.4 ft), 7.5 m (24.6 ft), and 10 m (32.8 ft). The platforms vary in width and length depending on their height. The 10-m platform is 2 m (6.6 ft) wide and 6 m (19.7 ft) long. A nonslip material covers the surface and the front edge of the platform, and handrails surround the back and sides. Many pools have stacked platforms, with one platform built directly above another. The platform above projects a minimum of 76 cm (30 in) beyond the platform below, so that the diver does not hit the lower one on the way down. Collegiate divers may use all three platform heights during competition. In platform competitions at the Olympic Games, world championships, and World Cup, 10 m is the standard height.
Competitive springboards are 1 m (3.3 ft) and 3 m (9.8 ft) above the surface of the water. They are made of an aluminum alloy and measure 4.9 m (16 ft) long and .5 m (1.6 ft) wide. Springboards hang over the pool at least 1.5 m (5 ft) beyond the edge. The last portion of the board is made of a lightweight material that minimizes the potential for serious injury if a diver accidentally hits it with the hands, arms, feet, or head. High school divers use 1-m springboards. Both 1-m and 3-m boards are used in collegiate competitions, as well as the world championships and World Cup. Olympic springboard diving is limited to the 3-m competition.
Diving today is one of the world's most popular sports. Thousands of people dive every day in some form in almost all of the world's countries. Many Chinese divers actually go to Diving school when they are very young, where training and study are of equal importance. In the Olympic games, diving is always one of the most popular events for its excitement, beauty and drama.
Amateur diving is the organized sport which athletes compete in at swimming pools around the world. In Amateur competitions, divers compete always against members of their same sex. There are junior competitions where age is taken into considerations, and senior competitions which are open to all age groups. In most cases divers all perform a list of dives. These lists are made up of easier dives called compulsories, and harder dives called optionals. The group of compulsory dives has a limit of combined difficulty and must cover all groups of dives. The optional dives must also cover all groups of dives, but has no difficulty limit. Some competitions only have optional dives.
Professional Diving (High Diving高台跳水and Cliff Diving悬崖跳水) ：
Professional diving is when the athletes are paid to perform in some form of High Diving or Stunt Diving. There are acrobatic diving shows all over the world in amusement parks, fairs and water parks. These shows often contain a combination of normal diving, clown diving, fire diving, and high diving. Clown divers delight the crowd with all sort of humorous antics. Fire divers done protective clothing and set themselves on fire before diving into the water. High Diving consists of acrobatic dives between 23 - 28 meters, from 75-90 feet up, many times into very shallow water of around 9 feet deep. When the diver takes off from a natural rock rather than a man-made platform, it is reffered to as Cliff Diving. From that height, the athlete has around 3 seconds before impacting on the surface of the water. The speed when entering the water is between 78 km/h and 100 km/h.
Diving Events Rules
The individual medal diving events are the men's 3m springboard, the men's 10m platform, the women's 3m springboard and the women's 10m platform. Using "fancy" to describe diving is probably more apt for synchronized diving, which made its Olympic debut at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Synchronized diving events consist of men's 3m and 10m and women's 3m and 10m. These events consist of two divers leaving the platform or springboard simultaneously and diving together. Usually the athletes perform the same dive, although occasionally dives which complement each other are chosen. Divers must attempt a set number of dives selected from each of the main diving groups. The springboard competition consists of five groups: front, back, reverse, inward and twisting. Platform competition includes those five groups, plus the armstand dive. The United States has dominated the sport of diving, perhaps to an even greater extent than any other sport at the Olympics. In the 1980s the Chinese entered diving competition and posed the first serious threat to American dominance. And now, China claims to be the dream team in diving, being the target of envy on both the platform and springboard for years. Led by such stars as Fu Mingxia and Xiong Ni, the team swept five out of the eight gold medals on offer at the millennium Olympic Games in Sydney.
In diving competitions, competitors perform a series of dives and are awarded points up to 10, depending upon their elegance and skill. The points are then adjusted for the degree of difficulty, based on the number and types of maneuvers attempted, such as somersaults, pikes, tucks and twists. A reverse 1.5 somersault with 4.5 twists, for example, is among the most difficult. Judges are appointed by FINA, the international body governing diving. If possible, the nationalities of the judges differ from the competitors. The referee is in charge of the competition and makes sure all regulations are followed. Judges rate both technique and style. Judges assess the diver's approach, take-off, elevation, execution and entry. Individual diving events have seven judges. For synchronized diving, four judges will assess the divers' skills and five others will judge how the pairs match each other in terms of height, distance from the springboard or platform, speed of rotation and entry into the water. Five judges assess the synchronization of the dives, and four award marks for execution. Two of the four judges judging the execution focus on each diver's performance. The synchronization judges focus exclusively on synchronization in the approach, take-off (including similarity of height), coordinated timing of movements during flight, similarity of entry angles, comparative distance from the board at entry, and simultaneous entries. The highest and lowest scores awarded for both execution and synchronization are discarded, and the final score is calculated in the same manner as other dives. Each dive is considered without regard to the difficulty figure.
More About Diving
A forward or backward facing dive from a standing position at the end of the springboard or platform.
Arm stand dive臂立跳水：
A dive that begins from a handstand position, used only in platform diving.
A dive performed with a walking or running approach.
The diver must be able to see the surface of the water during the dive, and FINA has several requirements to ensure this. Springboards and platforms in outdoor pools must face north in the northern hemisphere and south in the southern hemisphere; this avoids glare from the sun, which lies to the south in the northern hemisphere and to the north in the southern hemisphere. For indoor pools and for diving at night in outdoor pools, lighting must be sufficient. Any sources of illumination should prevent glare.
A smooth surface of water can make it difficult for athletes to judge the distance to the water. Therefore, many competition pools have machines that agitate the water under the springboards and platforms, making the surface more visible. Some pools that host major events have elevators that take divers to the top of the platform and underwater windows below the surface of the pool for observers and television cameras.
Diving Techniques 跳水技术：
A basic dive has four distinct phases: the starting position, the take-off, the in-flight maneuvers, and the entry into the water. Divers learn each of these components by repeating the dive or skill over and over. Divers also use skill progressions to learn more difficult dives. They first master simple skills such as feetfirst jumps before learning body positions, alignment, somersaults, and twists. These complex skills are often taught on dry land using special equipment such as trampolines combined with safety harnesses that can suspend the diver in the air with ropes. Foam pits that cushion landings from low springboards are also used.
Three or more steps a diver takes to the end of a springboard or platform before take-off.
A diver's lift-off from the board.
The height a diver achieves from a take-off.